Cancer of the colon or rectum, the organs found at the lower end of the digestive tract, is colorectal cancer. Early cases can start as non-cancerous polyps. These do not always have any symptoms, but they can be detected by examination. For this reason, colon and rectal cancer surgeon in Kolkata recommend screening for people at high risk or over the age of 50. After identifying the stage and type of cancer, doctors in Kolkata make an informed decision about the line of treatment, taking drugs and medicines, age and overall preferences of the victim, and the state of health, assuming the side effects of cancer. The patient’s nutritional care and support from the family should also be considered.
Types of colorectal cancer
Although adenocarcinomas are a significant component of colorectal cancer in the rectum and colon, there are a few less common but more complex types of the disease. In the word adenocarcinomas, “adeno” is a prefix, meaning glands, and the type of cancer that grows in epithelial cells is known as “carcinomas”. Usually it starts with the inner layers while spreading to the other layers.
A lesser-known type of disease is a gastrointestinal carcinoid tumour in which cancer develops in a neuro-endocrine cell. These cells regulate the production of hormones. These cancers grow very slowly and usually accumulate in the gastrointestinal tract or lungs.
Primary Colorectal Lymphoma
Primary colorectal lymphoma is a type of cancer that develops in cells called lymphocytes, which helps the body fight infection. More common in men, the disease accounts for 0.5 percent of colorectal cancer.
Leiomyosarcoma is a type of sarcoma that means “smooth muscle cancer.” It is a rare type of cancer that damages all three layers of the colon and rectum, which work together to expel waste through the digestive tract. This type of colorectal cancer accounts for only 0.1
percent of cases.
Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumour
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors develop in certain cells of the gastrointestinal tract. About 50 percent of GIST increases in the stomach, especially in the intestines and rectum. It first attacks the connective tissue but soon spreads to nerves, bones, and cartilage.
While mucinous adenocarcinomas account for 60 percent of the disease where the mucosa spreads cancer cells more aggressively, signet ring cells account for less than one percent of adenocarcinoma disease. With the very rapid spread and multiple problems, treatment for this is difficult and painful, including a lengthy procedure.
Rectal Cancer Treatment
A popular cancer treatment hospital will offer the following types of treatment for colorectal cancer.
- Surgery is probably the best treatment for colorectal cancer, where the tumor and surrounding tissues are surgically removed. The best colon and rectal cancer surgeon in Kolkata may also choose laparoscopic surgery because it is a less risky procedure and shorter recovery time.
- A colostomy is the second most preferred type of treatment for colorectal cancer. Here, the affected parts are completely removed. Then the surface of the colon and abdomen join. This is done with openings made during surgery. Waste materials accumulate in a pouch that the patient wears temporarily to give his or her rectum time to heal.
- Tumors are heated with the help of radiofrequency waves to catch them from spreading to other vital organs in the patient’s body. Radiofrequency ablation (or RFA) is yet another treatment for this type of cancer.
- Radiation therapy is another type of colorectal cancer treatment where they are X-rayed at a higher intensity to destroy the tumors and cells in the area so that they do not re-divide. There are a few mild side effects that can occur with this treatment. The patient should consult a colon and rectal cancer doctor near him for more details.