Rectal cancer occurs when cancer cells start developing in the rectum. Symptoms of rectal cancer are blood in stool, constipation, and diarrhoea. After the best rectal cancer doctor diagnoses the cancer and determines its stage, treatment is prescribed. Here, we will look at the different stages of rectal cancer.
Different stages of rectal cancer
The different stages of rectal cancer are listed below by the best rectal cancer doctor in Kolkata.
● Stage 0
At stage 0, rectal cancer is in its earliest stage. This stage is also called intramucosal carcinoma or carcinoma in situ. In this stage, cancer does not grow beyond the inner layer of your rectum.
● Stage 1
In stage 1 rectal cancer, cancer grows throughout the muscularis mucosa in the submucosa, and it might also grow into the muscularis propia. Cancer does not spread to the nearby lymph nodes and to the distant sites in this stage.
● Stage 2
Stage 2 rectal cancer is divided into stages 2A, 2B, and 2C. In stage 2A, cancer grows in the outermost layer of the rectum. But, it does not reach the nearby organs. Additionally, it does not spread to distant sites and nearby lymph nodes.
In stage 2B, cancer grows through the wall of the rectum but does not grow in the nearby organs and tissues. So, in this stage, it does not spread to the lymph nodes or to distant sites.
In stage 2C, cancer grows through the wall of the rectum and spreads to the nearby organs or tissues, surrounding fat areas, and lymph nodes.
● Stage 3
Similar to stage 2 rectal cancer, stage 3 rectal cancer is divided into stages 3A, 3B, and 3C. In stage 3A, cancer grows in your submucosa and spreads to four to six lymph nodes and not to distant sites.
In stage 3B, cancer grows through the mucosa into your submucosa and might also grow into the muscularis propia and spread to seven or more lymph nodes.
In stage 3C, cancer grows into the outermost areas of your rectum and to seven or more lymph nodes.
● Stage 4
Stage 4 rectal cancer is further subdivided into stages 4A, 4B, and 4C. In stage 4A, cancer spreads to one distant organ like the lung or liver, a distant set of lymph nodes, but not to the lining of your abdominal cavity.
Stage 4B rectal cancer has spread to your nearby lymph nodes. And in the final stage 4C of rectal cancer, it has spread to the distant parts of your peritoneum and might also spread to the distant lymph nodes and organs.
You can consult a rectal cancer surgeon to check which stage of cancer you are suffering from and to determine a treatment plan suitable for you.