Colon cancer originates from the growth of polyps in the inner lining of your colon. These polyps develop in the mucosa, the innermost layer, which is composed of cells responsible for producing and releasing mucus and other fluids. When these cells undergo mutations, they give rise to cancerous colon polyps.
Below, the best cancer doctor in Kolkata has discussed the various screening tests and treatments used to identify and remove these cancerous polyps.


The following screening tests are done to detect the presence of colon cancer:

Colonoscopy: The most commonly used screening test for colon cancer is a colonoscopy. It involves examining the rectum and colon for polyps or signs of cancer. This procedure is carried out by inserting a colonoscope through the rectum into the colon for close visualisation.

Faecal immunochemical test (FIT): It helps to identify hidden blood in your stool. Pathologists analyse samples of your stool for blood that might not be visible through the naked eye.

Guaiac-based faecal occult blood test (gFOBT): Blood vessels near the surface of larger polyps or cancers are susceptible to damage during the passage of stool. They often rupture and release small amounts of blood during defecation. This test uses a chemical (guaiac) to detect the presence of occult blood, which could be an indication of polyps or colorectal cancer

Faecal DNA test: This test examines your stool for indications of genetic mutations.

Flexible sigmoidoscopy: Doctors use a flexible instrument known as a sigmoidoscope to closely examine the inside of the colon and rectum.

Virtual colonoscopy: It is an X-ray procedure designed to identify polyps, tumours, and ulcers (sores) in your colon and rectum.


The best cancer surgeon in Kolkata conducts the following surgeries to treat colon cancer, depending on its severity.

Polypectomy: This is a surgical procedure where cancerous polyps, if detected during a colonoscopy, are removed. There are multiple ways to perform polypectomy.

To eliminate small polyps, doctors opt for biopsy forceps. For extracting larger polyps with a diameter of more than 2 centimetres, a snare polypectomy is conducted. In this case, the doctor loops a thin wire around the base of the polyp and utilises heat to sever the growth. Any remaining tissue or stalk is subsequently cauterised.

Partial colectomy: Also known as colon resection surgery, this procedure involves removing only the section of the colon that is cancerous. After it is eliminated, doctors connect the healthy tissues in the vicinity by conducting an anastomosis.

Surgical resection with colostomy: Surgical resection with colostomy is similar to a colectomy, where cancer surgeons remove the part containing a tumour. However, there are few healthy colon tissues left after surgery. Therefore, in such cases, a colostomy is performed. The surgeon creates an opening known as a stoma in the skin of your belly. The colon is then connected to the outer wall of your belly. The stool passes through the stoma and is collected in a drainage bag.

If you are experiencing abdominal pain, blood in your stool, vomiting or bloating without any signs of relief, you must reach out to the best cancer doctor in Kolkata for expert guidance. Early detection and intervention are extremely crucial in preventing the progression of colon cancer.